While the idea of additional calamities in 2020 seems almost unimaginable, last week the head of Israel’s National Cyber Directorate made a chilling declaration: a cyber winter is coming. Yigal Unna made these comments after an Iranian attack in April that was designed to subvert the systems controlling chlorine levels in an Israeli water treatment facility failed. If the attack had been successful, the residential water supply would have been contaminated, poisoning hundreds of people and causing a mass water shortage in areas of the nation. In response, Israel undertook a cyber counteroffensive that knocked offline the port of Shahid Rajaee, paralyzing it for days and devastating associated supply chains.

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